Paul McCartney biography:
Paul McCartney is an English musician and a former member of the legendary music band ‘The Beatles’. A multiple Grammy Award winner, he is also a two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (as a member of The Beatles in 1988, and as a solo artist in 1999), and one of the most successful composers and performers of all time. With his unprecedented success as a musician he has achieved a legendary status, and is regarded as one of the icons of 20th century English music. He loved music from a young age and was influenced by his father who was a trumpet player. He began writing songs as a teenager and started playing the guitar. As a young man he met John Lennon in a church festival and Lennon who played with a band invited Paul to join them. Soon other aspiring musicians too joined the group, and thus ‘The Beatles’ was born. Over the next few years ‘The Beatles’ went on to achieve phenomenal fame and all the group members, including Paul McCartney became internationally famous. He was already an influential figure by the time The Beatles broke up and easily embarked on a successful solo career. Along with all his musical achievements, he is also well-known for his philanthropic activities and social activism
He was born as James Paul McCartney on 18 June 1942 in Liverpool, England. His mother Mary Patricia was a midwife while his father James McCartney was a cotton salesman and jazz pianist with a local band. He has one younger brother.
He attended the Stockton Wood Road Primary School where he met and befriended George Harrison.
Paul McCartney’s mother died of breast cancer when he was just 14. The loss of his mother shattered the young boy.
As a teenager, he met John Lennon at a church festival. Since John too had lost his mother at a young age, the two boys bonded quickly and became friends. John had a band called the ‘Quarrymen’ and invited Paul to join the band.
Over the next few years, the band adopted the name, ‘The Beatles’. It also saw many changes in the personnel and by 1962 he line-up consisted of Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr.
The band’s first single, “Love Me Do”, principally written by Paul McCartney in collaboration with Lennon was released in 1962. The single became a hit and the Beatles became very popular.
In 1965 the group released their album, ‘Help!’ which spawned the hit single “Yesterday” written by Paul McCartney. The song went on to become one of the most covered songs in the history of recorded music with more than 2,200 cover versions.
Paul McCartney gave the group an idea for a concept album, ‘Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ which was released in 1976 to immediate success. It performed well commercially and was also critically acclaimed. It spent 27 weeks at the top of the albums chart in the United Kingdom and won four Grammy Awards in 1968.
Even though the band achieved phenomenal popularity and widespread success, the relations between the band members became strained and they started having frequent disagreements. Thus Paul McCartney left the band in 1970.
In 1971, he along with his wife Linda McCartney, session drummer Denny Seiwell, and former Moody Blues guitarist Denny Laine formed the rock band ‘Paul McCartney and Wings’.
Paul McCartney and Wings released several albums over the next decade including ‘Red Rose Speedway’ (1973), ‘Band on the Run’ (1973), ‘Venus and Mars’ (1975), ‘Wings at the Speed of Sound’ (1976), and ‘Back to the Egg’ (1979). The group disbanded in 1981 following disagreements over royalties and salaries.
The 1980s was a difficult time for Paul McCartney. He had become a drug addict and was arrested for possession of marijuana and fined. The same decade also saw the murder of his former partner, John Lennon, which deeply disturbed him. Even though he continued creating music, he could not achieve much success during this period.
During the 1990s, he collaborated with Martin Glover—popularly known as Youth—who was bassist of the rock band ‘Killing Joke’ and formed the band ‘The Fireman’. They came out with the album ‘Strawberries Oceans Ships Forest’, in 1993. The same year, McCartney released the rock album, ‘Off the Ground’.
He took a break from his solo career to work on ‘The Beatles Anthology’, a documentary TV series, a three-volume set of double albums, and a book focusing on the history of The Beatles. All the three surviving Beatles, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, participated in the making of the works.
He continued touring, performing and recording new albums well into the new millennium even though he was now in his sixties. The albums he released during this period include ‘Ecce Cor Meum’ (2006), ‘Memory Almost Full’ (2007), and ‘Electric Arguments’ (2008).
His debut studio album, ‘McCartney’, released in 1970 peaked at No. 1 position on the US Billboard 200 chart and remained there for three weeks; it reached No. 2 in Britain.
The album ‘Band on the Run’ released by Paul McCartney and Wings, became the top-selling studio album of 1974 in the United Kingdom and Australia. It was eventually certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America and remains his most successful album till date.
Awards & Achievements
Paul McCartney is a 21-time Grammy Award winner, including 12 as a member of ‘The Beatles’ and six as a solo artist.
He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice: Class of 1988 as a member of the Beatles and Class of 1999 as a solo artist.
In 1997, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his services to music.
He received the Gershwin Prize for his contributions to popular music in 2010.
He received the French Légion d’Honneur for his services to music in 2012.
Katharine Hepburn Biography
Hepburn was more a personality than an actress when she took the professional plunge after graduating from Bryn Mawr in 1928; her first stage parts were bits, but she always attracted attention with her distinct New England accent and her bony, sturdy frame. The actress’ outspokenness lost her more jobs than she received, but, in 1932, she finally scored on Broadway with the starring role in The Warrior’s Husband. She didn’t want to sign the film contract offered her by RKO, so she made several “impossible” demands concerning salary and choice of scripts. The studios agreed to her terms, and, in 1932, she made her film debut opposite John Barrymore in A Bill of Divorcement (despite legends to the contrary, the stars got along quite well). Critical reaction to Hepburn’s first film set the tone for the next decade: Some thought that she was the freshest and most original actress in Hollywood, while others were irritated by her mannerisms and “artificial” speech patterns. For her third film, Morning Glory (1933), Hepburn won the first of her four Oscars. But despite initial good response to her films, Hepburn lost a lot of popularity during her RKO stay because of her refusal to play the “Hollywood game.” She dressed in unfashionable slacks and paraded about without makeup; refused to pose for pinup pictures, give autographs, or grant interviews; and avoided mingling with her co-workers. As stories of her arrogance and self-absorption leaked out, moviegoers responded by staying away from her films. The fact that Hepburn was a thoroughly dedicated professional — letter-perfect in lines, completely prepared and researched in her roles, the first to arrive to the set each day and the last to leave each evening — didn’t matter in those days, when style superseded substance.
Briefly returning to Broadway in 1933’s The Lake, Hepburn received devastating reviews from the same critics who found her personality so bracing in The Warrior’s Husband. The grosses on her RKO films diminished with each release — understandably so, since many of them (Break of Hearts , Mary of Scotland ) were not very good. She reclaimed the support of RKO executives after appearing in the moneymaking Alice Adams (1935) — only to lose it again by insisting upon starring in Sylvia Scarlett (1936), a curious exercise in sexual ambiguity that lost a fortune. Efforts to “humanize” the haughty Hepburn personality in Stage Door (1937) and the delightful Bringing Up Baby (1938) came too late; in 1938, she was deemed “box-office poison” by an influential exhibitor’s publication. Hepburn’s career might have ended then and there, but she hadn’t been raised to be a quitter. She went back to Broadway in 1938 with a part written especially for her in Philip Barry’s The Philadelphia Story. Certain of a hit, she bought the film rights to the play; thus, when it ended up a success, she was able to negotiate her way back into Hollywood on her own terms, including her choice of director and co-stars. Produced by MGM in 1940, the film version was a box-office triumph, and Hepburn had beaten the “poison” label.
In her next MGM film, Woman of the Year (1942), Hepburn co-starred with Spencer Tracy, a copacetic teaming that endured both professionally and personally until Tracy’s death in 1967. After several years of off-and-on films, Hepburn scored another success with 1951’s The African Queen, marking her switch from youngish sophisticates to middle-aged character leads. After 1962’s Long Day’s Journey Into Night, Hepburn withdrew from performing for nearly five years, devoting her attention to her ailing friend and lover Tracy. She made the last of her eight screen appearances with Tracy in Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), which also featured her niece Katharine Houghton. Hepburn won her second Oscar for this film, and her third the following year for A Lion in Winter; the fourth was bestowed 13 years later for On Golden Pond (1981). When she came back to Broadway for the 1969 musical Coco, Hepburn proved that the years had not mellowed her; she readily agreed to preface her first speech with a then-shocking profanity, and, during one performance, she abruptly dropped character to chew out an audience member for taking flash pictures. Hepburn made the first of her several television movies in 1975, co-starring with Sir Laurence Olivier in Love Among the Ruins — and winning an Emmy award, as well. Her last Broadway appearance was in 1976’s A Matter of Gravity.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Hepburn continued to star on TV and in films, announcing on each occasion that it would be her last performance. She also began writing books and magazine articles, each of them an extension of her personality: self-centered, well-organized, succinct, and brutally frank (especially regarding herself). While she remained a staunch advocate of physical fitness, Hepburn suffered from a genetic condition, a persistent tremor that caused her head to shake — an affliction she blithely incorporated into her screen characters. In 1994, Warren Beatty coaxed Hepburn out of her latest retirement to appear as his aristocratic grand-aunt in Love Affair. Though appearing frailer than usual, Hepburn was in complete control of herself and her craft, totally dominating her brief scenes. And into her nineties and on the threshold of her tenth decade, Katharine Hepburn remained the consummate personality, actress, and star.
On June 29, 2003 Katharine Hepburn died of natural causes in Old Saybrook, Connetticut. She was 96.
Debbie Reynolds biography:
Debbie Reynolds (Mary Frances Reynolds, April 1, 1932 – December 28, 2016) was an American actress, singer, businesswoman, film historian, and humanitarian. Her breakout role was the portrayal of Helen Kane in the 1950 film Three Little Words, for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer. However, it was her first leading role in 1952 at age 19, as Kathy Selden in Singin’ in the Rain, that set her on the path to fame. By the mid-1950s, she was a major star. Other notable successes include The Affairs of Dobie Gillis (1953), Susan Slept Here (1954), Bundle of Joy (1956 Golden Globe nomination), The Catered Affair (1956 National Board of Review Best Supporting Actress Winner), and Tammy and the Bachelor (1957), in which her performance of the song “Tammy” reached number one on the music charts. In 1959, she released her first pop music album, entitled Debbie.
She starred in How the West Was Won (1963), and The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964), a biographical film about the famously boisterous Molly Brown. Her performance as Brown earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her other notable films include The Singing Nun (1966), Divorce American Style (1967), What’s the Matter with Helen? (1971), Mother (1996 Golden Globe nomination), and In & Out (1997). Reynolds was also a noted cabaret performer. In 1979 she founded the Debbie Reynolds Dance Studio in North Hollywood, which still operates today.
In 1969 she starred in her own television show The Debbie Reynolds Show, for which she received a Golden Globe nomination. In 1973 Reynolds starred in a Broadway revival of the musical Irene and was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Musical.She was also nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance in A Gift of Love (1999) and an Emmy Award for playing Grace’s mother Bobbi on Will & Grace. At the turn of the millennium, Reynolds reached a new younger generation with her role as Aggie Cromwell in Disney’s Halloweentown series. In 1988 she released her autobiography titled, Debbie: My Life. In 2013, she released an updated version titled Unsinkable: A Memoir.
Reynolds was a noted businesswoman, having operated her own hotel in Las Vegas. She was also a collector of film memorabilia, beginning with items purchased at the landmark 1970 MGM auction. She was the former president of The Thalians, an organization dedicated to mental health causes. Reynolds continued to perform successfully on stage, television, and film into her eighties. In January 2015, Reynolds received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. In 2016 she received the Academy Awards Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award. In the same year, a documentary about her life was released titled Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds.
On December 28, 2016, one day after the death of her daughter Carrie Fisher, Reynolds died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles.
Reynolds regularly appeared in movie musicals during the 1950s and had several hit records during the period. Her song “Aba Daba Honeymoon” (featured in the film Two Weeks with Love (1950) as a duet with Carleton Carpenter) was a top-three hit in 1951. Her most high-profile film role was in Singin’ in the Rain (1952), a satire on movie making in Hollywood during the transition from silent to sound pictures. It costarred Gene Kelly, whom she called a “great dancer and cinematic genius,” adding, “He made me a star. I was 18 and he taught me how to dance and how to work hard and be dedicated.” In 1956 she appeared in Bundle of Joy with her then-husband, Eddie Fisher.
Her recording of the song “Tammy” (1957; from Tammy and the Bachelor), earned her a gold record, and was the best-selling single by a female vocalist in 1957. It was number one for five weeks on the Billboard pop charts. In the movie (the first of the Tammy film series), she co-starred with Leslie Nielsen.
Reynolds also scored two other top-25 Billboard hits with “A Very Special Love” (#20 in January 1958) and “Am I That Easy to Forget” (#25 in March 1960)—a pop-music version of a country-music hit made famous by both songwriters Carl Belew (in 1959), Skeeter Davis (in 1960), and several years later by singer Engelbert Humperdinck.
During these years, she also headlined in major Las Vegas showrooms. Reynolds’ last album was a Christmas record with the late Donald O’Connor entitled Chrissy the Christmas Mouse.
Mary Frances Reynolds was born on April 1, 1932, in El Paso, Texas, the daughter of Maxine (née Harmon; 1913–1999) and Raymond Francis Reynolds (1903–1986), a carpenter for the Southern Pacific Railroad. She was of Scottish-Irish and English ancestry, and was raised in a strict Nazarene church. She had a brother two years her senior, and Reynolds was a Girl Scout, once saying that she wanted to die as the world’s oldest living Girl Scout. Her father dug ditches and her mother took in washing clothes for others for income, while they they lived in a “shack” on Magnolia Street, in El Paso. “We may have been poor,” she said, “but we always had something to eat, even if Dad had to go out on the desert and shoot jack rabbits.”
One of the advantages of having been poor is that you learn to appreciate good fortune and the value of a dollar, and poverty holds no fear for you because you know you’ve gone through it and you can do it again…But we were always a happy family and a religious one. And I’m trying to inculcate in my children the same sense of values, the same tone that my mother gave to me.”
Her family moved to Burbank, California, in 1939. At age sixteen, in 1948, while a student at Burbank High School, she won the Miss Burbank beauty contest. Soon after, she had a contract with Warner Bros and acquired a new first name via Jack Warner.
During her teenage years in Burbank, she rarely dated, said one of her closes high school friends. “They never found her attractive in school. She was cute, but sort of tomboyish, and her family never had any money to speak of. She never dressed well or drove a car. And, I think, during all the years in school, she was invited to only one dance.” Her friend adds:
I say this in all sincerity. Debbie can serve as an inspiration to all young American womanhood. She came up the hard way, and she has a realistic sense of values based on faith, love, work and money. Life has been kind to her because she has been kind to life. She’s a young woman with a conscience, which is something rare in Hollywood actresses. She also has a refreshing sense of honesty.
Her starring role in The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964) led to a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. She then portrayed Jeanine Deckers in The Singing Nun (1966). In what Reynolds once called the “stupidest mistake of my entire career”, she made headlines in 1970 after instigating a fight with the NBC television network over cigarette advertising on her weekly television show. Although she was at the time television’s highest paid female performer, she quit the show for breaking its contract:
I was shocked to discover that the initial commercial aired during the premiere of my new series was devoted to a nationally advertised brand of cigarette (Pall Mall). I fully outlined my personal feelings concerning cigarette advertising … that I will not be a party to such commercials which I consider directly opposed to health and well-being.
Reynolds continued to make appearances in film and television. She played Helen Chappel Hackett’s mother, Deedee Chappel, on an episode of Wings titled, “If It’s Not One Thing, It’s Your Mother”, which originally aired on November 22, 1994. From 1999 to its 2006 series finale, she played Grace Adler’s theatrical mother, Bobbi Adler, on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, which earned her an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series in 2000. She plays a recurring role in the Disney Channel Original Movie Halloweentown film series as Aggie Cromwell. Reynolds made a guest appearance as a presenter at the 69th Academy Awards in 1997. She made a cameo role as herself in the 2004 film Connie and Carla. In 2013 she appeared in Behind the Candelabra, as the mother of Liberace.
With limited film and television opportunities coming her way, Reynolds accepted an opportunity to make her Broadway debut. She starred in the 1973 revival of Irene, a musical first produced 60 years before. When asked why she waited so long to appear in a Broadway play, she explained:
Primarily because I had two children growing up. I could make movies and recordings and play in nearby Las Vegas and handle a television series without being away from them. Now, they are well on the way to being adults. Also, there was the matter of being offered a show that I felt might be right for me … I felt that Irene was it and now was the time.
Along with Reynolds, her daughter Carrie was also making her Broadway debut in the play. The production broke records for the highest weekly gross of any musical. For that production, she received a Tony nomination. Reynolds also starred in a self-titled Broadway revue, Debbie, in 1976. She toured with Harve Presnell in Annie Get Your Gun, then wrapped up the Broadway run of Woman of the Year in 1983. In the late 1980s Reynolds repeated her role as Molly Brown in the stage version of The Unsinkable Molly Brown, first opposite Presnell (repeating his original Broadway and movie role) and later with Ron Raines.
Reynolds amassed a large collection of movie memorabilia, beginning with items from the landmark 1970 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer auction, and displayed them, first in a museum at her Las Vegas hotel and casino during the 1990s and later in a museum close to the Kodak Theater in Los Angeles. On several occasions, she auctioned off items from the collection.
The museum was to relocate to be the centerpiece of the Belle Island Village tourist attraction in the resort city of Pigeon Forge, Tennessee, but the developer went bankrupt. The museum filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in June 2009.
Todd Fisher, Reynolds’ son, announced that his mother was “heartbroken” to have to auction off her collection. It was valued at $10.79 million in the bankruptcy filing. The Los Angeles auction firm Profiles in History was given the responsibility of conducting a series of auctions. Among the “more than 3500 costumes, 20,000 photographs, and thousands of movie posters, costume sketches, and props” included in the sales were Charlie Chaplin’s bowler hat and Marilyn Monroe’s white “subway dress”, whose skirt is lifted up by the breeze from a passing subway train in the film The Seven Year Itch (1955). The dress sold for $4.6 million; the final auction was held in May 2014.
In 1979, Reynolds opened her own dance studio in North Hollywood. In 1983 she released an exercise video titled Do It Debbie’s Way!.
She purchased the Clarion Hotel and Casino, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, in 1992 and renamed it the Debbie Reynolds Hollywood Hotel, but it was not a success. In 1997, Reynolds was forced to declare bankruptcy.
In June 2010, she replaced Ivana Trump answering reader queries for the weekly paper Globe.
Reynolds was married three times. Her first marriage was to singer Eddie Fisher in 1955. They were the parents of Carrie and Todd Fisher. The couple divorced in 1959 when Fisher had an affair with Elizabeth Taylor, Debbie Reynolds’ good friend at the time, shortly after the death of Taylor’s husband Mike Todd. The Eddie Fisher-Elizabeth Taylor affair caused a serious public scandal, even leading to the cancellation of Eddie Fisher’s television show at the time. In 2011, on The Oprah Winfrey Show, just weeks before Elizabeth Taylor’s death, Reynolds explained that she and Taylor happened to be traveling at the same time on the ocean liner Queen Elizabeth sometime in the late 1960s or early 1970s when they made up. Reynolds sent a note to Taylor’s room, and Taylor sent a note in reply asking to have dinner with Reynolds and end their feud. The two reconciled, and, as Reynolds put it, “… we had a wonderful evening with a lot of laughs”. The 1990 film Postcards from the Edge was written by Reynolds’ daughter Carrie Fisher and was semi-autobiographical, with the character of “Doris Mann” based on Reynolds.
Reynolds’ second marriage, to millionaire businessman Harry Karl, lasted from 1960 to 1973. Reynolds later found herself in financial difficulty because of Karl’s gambling and bad investments.
Reynolds’ third marriage was to real estate developer Richard Hamlett from 1984 to 1996.
In 2010, she appeared in her own West End show Debbie Reynolds: Alive and Fabulous. Beginning in 1955, Reynolds was active in The Thalians, a charitable organization devoted to children and adults with mental health issues; In 2011 she stepped down after 56 years of involvement and became an emerita member.
Reynolds was hospitalized in October 2012 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, due to an adverse reaction to medication. She canceled appearances and concert engagements for the next three months.
On December 23, 2016, Reynolds’ daughter, actress and writer Carrie Fisher, suffered a heart attack on a transatlantic flight from London to Los Angeles, and died at the age of 60 on December 27. On December 28 Reynolds was hospitalized at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, in fair-to-serious condition after a stroke at her son’s home. Later that afternoon, Reynolds died in the hospital.
Reynolds is survived by her son Todd Fisher and her granddaughter Billie Lourd. Her son said that his mother’s stress from the death of her daughter was partly responsible for her stroke. “Reynolds told him she missed her daughter and wanted to be with her,” according to news reports.
Reynolds was the 1955 Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year. Her foot and handprints are preserved at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, California. She also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6654 Hollywood Boulevard, for live performance and a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars dedicated to her. In keeping with the celebrity tradition of the Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival of Winchester, Virginia, Reynolds was honored as the Grand Marshal of the 2011 ABF that took place from April 26 to May 1, 2011.
In November 2006 Reynolds received the Lifetime Achievement in the Arts Award from Chapman University (Orange, California). On May 17, 2007, she was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Nevada, Reno, where she had contributed for many years to the film studies program.
Biography of Wyatt Earp.
One of the most famous figures to emerge from the colorful 19th-century history of the American West, Wyatt Earp (1848-1929) was known first and foremost for his participation in a notorious gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona in 1881. Both before and after that date, Earp moved from town to town across the West, earning his living as a saloonkeeper, gunslinger, gambler, miner and frontier lawman, alongside his brothers. Late in life, he settled in California, and collaborated on a largely fictionalized account of his life that made him a popular hero when it was published in 1931, two years after he died.
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born in 1848 in Monmouth, Illinois. The third of five sons born to Nicholas and Virginia Ann Earp, he spent his early life in Illinois and Iowa. As a young teenager, Wyatt repeatedly tried to run away and join his brothers James and Virgil and his half-brother Newton, who fought for the Union during the Civil War; each time he was caught and forced to return home. At 17, Wyatt left home and found work hauling freight and grading track for the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1869, he joined his family in Lamar, Missouri, becoming the local constable after his father resigned the position.
In early 1870, Earp married Urilla Sutherland, but she died of typhoid within the year. Devastated, he sold his newly bought house and left town to move around the Indian Territory and Kansas. During this period, Earp frequented the saloons, gambling houses and brothels that proliferated on the frontier, and had several run-ins with law enforcement. But after helping a police officer in Wichita track down a wagon thief, Earp joined that city’s police force (1875-76) and later became deputy town marshal of Dodge City. It was in Dodge City that Earp would make the acquaintance of Doc Holliday, a well-known gunman and gambler. In 1879, Earp and his longtime companion, the former prostitute Mattie Blaylock, left Dodge City for Tombstone, Arizona. The town was booming after a silver rush, and most of the Earp family had gathered there. Virgil was working as the town marshal, and Wyatt began working alongside him. In March 1881, while pursuing a group of cowboys who had robbed a stagecoach, Wyatt struck a deal with local rancher Ike Clanton, who had ties to the cowboys. Clanton soon turned against him, however, and began threatening the Earp brothers. The feud escalated, and finally exploded into violence on October 26, 1881 at the O.K. Corral.
In the gunfight, Virgil, Morgan and Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday faced off against the Clanton gang (Ike, his brother Billy, and Tom and Frank McLaury). Morgan, Virgil and Holliday were all wounded, but survived; Billy and the McLaurys were killed; and Wyatt Earp escaped without injury. Ike Clanton filed murder charges against the Earp brothers and Holliday, but a judge cleared them in late November. In December, Virgil was shot and seriously wounded by unknown attackers; the following March, Morgan was killed when unknown gunmen attacked him and Wyatt at a Tombstone saloon. On a hunt for the culprits, Wyatt and his gang killed several suspects, then decided to leave town to avoid prosecution.
After leaving Tombstone, Wyatt Earp moved around the West, eventually settling in California with Josephine Marcus, with whom he would spend the next 40 years. Over the years, he made a living by gambling, saloon-keeping, mining and real estate speculation. He also worked with a personal secretary, John H. Flood, to write his memoirs, which received a poor reception during his lifetime. Earp died in Los Angeles in January 1929, at the age of 80.
The first major Earp biography, “Wyatt Earp, Frontier Marshal” by Stuart N. Lake, was published in 1931 and became a bestseller, establishing Earp as a folk hero among millions of Americans searching for inspiration and excitement during the hard times of the Great Depression. Though Lake met with Earp himself near the end of his life, he later admitted that many of the quotations attributed to the frontiersman were invented, and the biography today is accepted as largely fictional.
Charles Dickens biography:
Charles Dickens (1812-1870), novelist, was born on 7 February 1812 in Portsmouth, England, son of John Dickens, a clerk in the Navy Pay Office, and his wife Elizabeth, née Barrow. Dickens received intermittent schooling and indifferent care from his parents who were once obliged to take up residence in Marshalsea prison for debt. First apprenticed to the law, he began writing unpaid pieces for popular journals. Sketches by ‘Boz’, Dickens’s pseudonym, were published in two volumes in 1836 and The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club in 1837. Sam Weller and Mr Pickwick created a world-wide furore and Dickens’s imitators were legion. Pickwick parties were held as far apart as Canada and Kangaroo Island, whilst the first pirated edition of Pickwick Papers was printed by Henry Dowling of Tasmania in 1838.
Fame was assured for Dickens with the publication of Oliver Twist in 1838 and Nicholas Nickleby in 1839. As novelist, journalist, public speaker and social critic, his popularity was universal and the world of his novels changed contemporary attitudes. At first aware of Australia only as a place of penal servitude, Dickens in Pickwick Papers has the convict, John Edmunds, transported and sent up country as a shepherd. The infamous Mr Squeers in Nicholas Nickleby is similarly sent to the colony. Always fascinated by crime, Dickens acquired knowledge of Norfolk Island from his friend Alexander Maconochie. He never forgot Australia’s prison origins and in his last completed novel, Our Mutual Friend (1865), Jenny Wren threatens her delinquent father with transportation. Similarly in David Copperfield, Mr Littimer and Uriah Heep are dispatched to Australia to complete their sentences.
In 1849 Dickens was writing David Copperfield and faced with the problem of a satisfactory disposition of Micawber and his family. He had already met Samuel Sidney, who was advocating Australia as a home for working class emigrants, and Mrs Caroline Chisholm through a common friend, Sidney Herbert. The last chapters of David Copperfield embodied material from Sidney’s Australian Hand-Book (1848) and Wilkins Micawber duly became the best known emigrant to Port Middlebay (Melbourne) where he attained affluence and the office of magistrate. Micawber was accompanied by little Em’ly, Peggotty, Martha Endell and Mrs Gummidge. The downtrodden schoolmaster, Mr Mell, founded an academy for boys at Port Middlebay and his fiddling and oratory delighted colonial society.
Household Words, Dickens’s journal, began publication in 1850 and the first article was an approving exposition of Mrs Chisholm’s Family Colonization Loan Society. Later articles and stories in that year were written by Samuel Sidney. The discovery of gold lent feasibility to Micawber’s success and mitigated the country’s reputation as a gaol. In Great Expectations (1861) Dickens created Magwitch, the convict who amassed wealth in New South Wales and so produced an English gentleman.
Dickens had contemplated a lecture tour of Australia in 1862 and intended to write a travel book, ‘The Uncommercial Traveller Upside Down’, but the tour was abandoned. In Australia, as in England, his novels were adapted as stage plays; with Our Emily, Old Curiosity Shop and Cricket on the Hearth as perennial favourites. The articles from Household Words and All the Year Round were widely published in the Australian press and helped to impose Dickens’s own view of Australia on Australian life and society.
Dickens died on 9 June 1870. Of his surviving sons, Alfred D’Orsay Tennyson (b.1845), had migrated to Australia in 1865. He bought a partnership in a stock and station agency in Hamilton, Victoria, but after his wife died left in 1882 to join the Melbourne branch of his brother’s agency. After a lecture tour he died in the United States in 1912. The youngest son, Edward Bulwer Lytton (b.1852), went to Australia in 1869 and settled at Wilcannia where he became manager of Momba station; in 1880 he married Constance Desailly. He opened a stock and station agency, was elected to the local council and bought a share in Yanda station near Bourke. He lost heavily from bad seasons and in 1886 he became a civil servant. He represented Wilcannia in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly in 1889-94. He died on 23 January 1902 at Moree and was buried by a Wesleyan minister.
Poeta inglés y una de las mayores personalidades del movimiento del romanticismo. Hoy es considerado uno de los mayores poetas en lengua inglesa.
“She Walks in Beauty” Lord Byron
She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that’s best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes;
Thus mellowed to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.
One shade the more, one ray the less,
Had half impaired the nameless grace
Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o’er her face;
Where thoughts serenely sweet express,
How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.
And on that cheek, and o’er that brow,
So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,
The smiles that win, the tints that glow,
But tell of days in goodness spent,
A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent
“Camina bella, como la noche”
Ella camina bella, como la noche
de climas sin nubes y de cielos estrellados;
y todo lo que es mejor de la oscuridad y de la luz
resplandece en su aspecto y en sus ojos,
así suavizada en esa luz tierna
que el cielo al llamativo día niega.
Una sombra lo más, un rayo lo menos,
han disminuido a medias la gracia sin nombre
que ondea por toda la negra y lustrosa trenza,
o relampaguea suavemente en su rostro;
donde los pensamientos con dulzura serena expresan
cuán pura, cuán querida es su morada.
Y sobre esas mejillas, y sobre esa frente,
tan suave, tan tranquila, sin embargo elocuente,
la sonrisa que triunfa, los matices que refulgen,
no cuentan sino de días de bondad gastados,
Una mente en paz con todo lo inferior,
¡Un corazón cuyo amor es inocente!
CURSOS DE INGLES EN MADRID.
Calle Princesa, 70 1º
Teléfono – 915433139
J.R. R. Tolkien biography:
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892, the son of English-born parents in Bloemfontein, in the Orange Free State of South Africa, where his father worked as a bank manager. To escape the heat and dust of southern Africa and to better guard the delicate health of Ronald (as he was called), Tolkien’s mother moved back to a small English village with him and his younger brother when they were very young boys. Tolkien would later use this village as a model for one of the locales in his novels. Within a year of this move their father, Arthur Tolkien, died in Bloemfontein, and a few years later the boys’ mother died as well.
The Tolkien boys lodged at several homes from 1905 until 1911, when Ronald entered Exeter College, Oxford. Tolkien received a bachelor’s degree from Oxford in 1915 and a master’s degree in 1919. During this time he married his longtime sweetheart, Edith Bratt, and served for a short time on the Western Front with the Lancashire Fusiliers (a regiment in the British army that used an older-style musket) during World War I (1914–18), when Germany led forces against much of Europe and America).
In 1917, Tolkien was in England recovering from “trench fever,” a widespread disease transmitted through fleas and other bugs in battlefield trenches. While bedridden Tolkien began writing “The Book of Lost Tales,” which eventually became The Silmarillion (1977) and laid the groundwork for his stories about Middle Earth, the fictional world where Tolkien’s work takes place.
After the war Tolkien returned to Oxford, where he joined the staff of the Oxford English Dictionary and began work as a freelance tutor. In 1920 he was appointed Reader in English Language at Leeds University. The following year, having returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Tolkien became friends with the novelist C. S. Lewis (1898–1963). They shared an intense enthusiasm for the myths, sagas, and languages of northern Europe, and to better enhance those interests, both attended meetings of the “Coalbiters,” an Oxford club, founded by Tolkien, at which Icelandic sagas were read aloud.
During the rest of Tolkien’s years at Oxford—twenty as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, fourteen as Merton Professor of English Language and Literature—Tolkien published several well-received short studies and translations. Notable among these are his essays “Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics” (1936), “Chaucer as a Philologist [a person who studies language as it relates to culture]: The Reeve’s Tale” (1934), and “On Fairy-Stories”(1947); his scholarly edition of Ancrene Wisse (1962); and his translations of three medieval poems: “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” “Pearl,” and “Sir Orfeo” (1975).
As a writer of imaginative literature, though, Tolkien is best known for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, tales which were formed during his years attending meetings of the “Inklings,” an informal gathering of like-minded friends and writers, that began after the Coalbiters dissolved. The Inklings, which was formed during the late 1930s and lasted until the late 1940s, was a weekly meeting held in Lewis’s sitting room at Magdalen College, at which works-in-progress were read aloud and discussed and critiqued by the attendees. Inklings, Lewis urged Tolkien to publish The Hobbit, which appeared in 1937.
Tolkien retired from his professorship in 1959. While the unauthorized publication of an American edition of The Lord of the Rings in 1965 angered him, it also made him a widely admired cult figure in the United States, especially among high school and college students. Uncomfortable with this status, he and his wife lived quietly in Bournemouth for several years, until Edith’s death in 1971. In the remaining two years of his life, Tolkien returned to Oxford, where he was made an honorary fellow of Merton College and awarded a doctorate of letters. He was at the height of his fame as a scholarly and imaginative writer when he died in 1973, though critical study of his fiction continues and has increased in the years since.
The world of Middle Earth
Tolkien, a devoted Roman Catholic throughout his life, began creating his own languages and mythologies at an early age and later wrote Christian-inspired stories and poems to provide them with a narrative framework. Based on bedtime stories Tolkien had created for his children, The Hobbit concerns the efforts of a hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, to recover a treasure stolen by a dragon. During the course of his mission, Baggins discovers a magical ring which, among other powers, can render its bearer invisible. The ability to disappear helps Bilbo fulfill his quest; however, the ring’s less obvious powers prompt the evil Sauron, Dark Lord of Mordor, to seek it. The hobbits’ attempt to destroy the ring, thereby denying Sauron unlimited power, is the focal point of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, which consists of the novels The Fellowship of the Ring (1954), The Two Towers (1954), and The Return of the King (1955). In these books Tolkien rejects such traditional heroic qualities as strength and size, stressing instead the capacity of even the humblest creatures to win against evil.
Throughout Tolkien’s career he composed histories, genealogies (family histories), maps, glossaries, poems, and songs to supplement his vision of Middle Earth. Among the many works published during his lifetime were a volume of poems, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962), and a fantasy novel, Smith of Wootton Major (1967). Though many of his stories about Middle Earth remained incomplete at the time of Tolkien’s death, his son, Christopher, rescued the manuscripts from his father’s collections, edited them, and published them. One of these works, The Silmarillion, takes place before the time of The Hobbit and tells the tale of the first age of Holy Ones (earliest spirits) and their offspring.
Nonetheless, Tolkien implies, to take The Lord of the Rings too seriously might be a mistake. He once stated that fairy stories in itself should be taken as a truth, not always symbolic of something else. He went on to say, “but first of all [the story] must succeed just as a tale, excite, please, and even on occasion move, and within its own imagined world be accorded literary belief. To succeed in that was my primary object.”
Nearly thirty years after his death, the popularity of Tolkien’s work has hardly slowed. In 2001 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released as a major motion picture. The magic of Tolkien’s world won over both the critics and public alike as the movie was nominated in thirteen categories, including Best Picture, at the Academy Awards; it won four awards. Two more films are scheduled for release by the end of 2003.
Jane Fonda, biography.
It was not just her characters that conquered our hearts: millions of women still follow her exercise and care routines. In the 1960-s she did not hesitate to oppose the military policy of the US’ Republican Party, which made her one of the select few beloved and known Americans in the USSR.
On the 21 December 1937 the family of Henry and Francis Fonda welcomed their first child (Jane Seymour Fonda). According to a family legend, the girl had the blood of famous lady Jane Seymour, the spouse of British King Henry the 8th, and the girl was named in her honor.
Several years later little Jane got her brother Peter, her dad became a Hollywood superstar, while her mother started to exhibit early symptoms of bipolar disorder.
The actress believes that she absorbed more of her dad’s features than her mom’s. She always described Henry as a man of a strict upbringing, and her mom as an indulged socialite. Her father enjoyed fuggy jazz clubs in Harlem and her mom shook her head at that, preferring elite Manhattan dinner parties.
Jane grew up very early. She and her brother Peter were at their own disposal, with their father constantly busy on set and their mum either suffering from depression or partying her days away. , When Jane turned 11, her parents got a divorce. One year later her mum passed away due to a heart attack, as her father claimed, and only many years later would Jane find out that in reality, Frances had killed herself in an asylum.
Henry Fonda was a perfect father, but those were the fifties, and women were held to the highest standards. Hence, young Jane Fonda always heard her dad saying «people only care about your appearance». In pursuit of perfection, the teenage girl started to starve herself, up to the point until she developed bulimia. When the girl was 16, Henry Ford’s villa, where he used to go for a holiday with his children and his new wife, was visited by Greta Garbo. The actress invited the girl for a swim and decided not to put a swimsuit on. The girl observed the celebrity’s body and realized: it was not perfect, but still beautiful, regardless of her bulky body frame/ Her attitude to beauty changed ever since. Fonda realized that the actual beauty is that of a toned body and not of a starved and exhausted one. But she fully managed to recover from the consequences of bulimia only by the age of 36.
The girl always felt lonely and to combat that feeling inside her, she went in for sports and dancing, or just read when left alone. Having switched several prestigious boarding schools, Jane barely finished school, and, having spent some months in Paris, she came back to the States.
The girl always felt lonely and to combat that feeling inside her, she went in for sports and dancing, or just read when left alone. Having switched several prestigious boarding schools, Jane barely finished school, and, having spent some months in Paris, she came back to the States.
In New York, the young girl took up acting. Not wishing to ask her dad to pay her tuition fees, she worked as a model, and at the age of 18, she already made it to the cover of Vogue.
At the age of 20, she enrolled in Lee Strasberg’s acting classes out of interest. The guru of acting highly appraised the girl’s talent already after her first scene.
In 1959 she took part in the play There was a Little Girl in one of the numerous theatres off Broadway. Her dad did not share Jane’s excitement about her first success but asked his friend to invite her to take part in his new movie. The Comedy Tall Story premiered in 1960, where Jane partnered up with young, but already famous Anthony Perkins. However, this picture only became famous as Jane’s first movie role. It was followed by several films, where the actress got the parts of sweet temptresses, which, however, brought her great popularity.
In 1963 a quintessentially beautiful duet of Jane Fonda and Alain Delon in René Clément’s Joy House became a milestone both in Europe and in America, and also brought the actress with Roger Vadim. This genius director filmed Jane in several of his movies. The role of an extraterrestrial beauty in the fantastic comedy Barbarella (1968) was performed by her already as his spouse.
The image of a sexy beauty became signature for Janem but also quickly drove her to boredom and even began to annoy her. As did her marriage. The relationship became a burden and the unleashed creative potential required to be realized on the screen when Jane gladly accepted Sydney Pollack’s invitation to take part in the drama They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?
A horribly cynical, evil and exhausted woman with dead eyes, who would recognize this was doll-like Barbarella? To get into the role and convey all the despair of a person, ready to undertake a deathly marathon, Jane danced for fourteen hours The success of the picture exceeded any expectations – the role of Gloria is considered on the best and the most remarkable works of the actress.
Another significant role of hers is that of a prostitute in the detective Klute (1971), for which she was awarded an Oscar. The actress got her second Oscar in 1979 for the role in the picture Coming Home, revealing the disastrous consequences of the Vietnam War. But the most important award was given to her 2 years later. All her life Jane Fonda was craving recognition of just one person – her dad. Such recognition was received when Henry Fonda took part in the picture On Golden Pont, where he played the role of the main heroine, portrayed by Jane. Henry Fonda was already ill at this point and died soon after. A callous man, who never told Jane how much he loved her, said his goodbyes in the movie.
In the period from 1985 to 2004, the actress had few shootings. Taking her father’s death heavily, the actress literally forced herself out of depression through gymnastics, developing a set of exercises, which eventually dispersed across the world as tapes and made her a fortune.
Having become a famous entrepreneur, Jane Fonda still remained an actress and came back to the screens in 2005. This Is Where I Leave You, Monster-in-Law, Youth and Fathers & Daughters: whatever role Jane got, she proved she could do it all.
The actress was married thrice. Her first husband was Roger Vadim, with whom she had their daughter Vanessa. The marriage lasted for 8 years (1965 – 1973). Fonda played the role of the perfect wife with delight: running errand around the house and pretending to share Roger’s views on free love and participating in his orgies.
Politician Tom Hayden, a far-right activist, became the actress’s second husband (1973 – 1990). They were brought together by their shared views – both were against the policy of the Republican Party and Nixon’s military course. This marriage resulted in the birth of Troy Garity. After meeting Hayden, Jane began campaigning with anti-militarist speeches, financing Veterans against war and advocating for the end of the Cold War. It is largely due to this that the movie They Shoot Horses, Don’t They? was able to find its way to the Soviet Screen (although it was also owing to the fact that the movie was set in the times of Great Depression).
At the beginning of the 70-s Jane Fonda was arrested by the police. She was accused of transporting drugs, which upon testing turned out to be vitamins. This was an intimidation tactic, planned by Nixon himself – his revenge for her protests against the war in Vietnam. Fonda and Hayden also have an adopted daughter Mary Luana Williams (born in 1967). Since her childhood, the girl was a member of the far-left movement for the rights of the black people Black Panthers. Her biological parents were members of this organization, and her father was sent to prison and her mother succumbed to alcoholism, which left the girl to be raised as La Fille du regiment of sorts. Jane met Mary at a child camp, which she was sponsoring. Her third husband was (1991 – 2001) Ted Turner, a businessman, founder of the CNN. They got divorced due to his infidelity.
After this Jane felt that she got tired of serious relationships. A dozen lovers later, she got into a stable relationship with music producer Richard Perry, which had lasted about 8 years before breaking up in 2017.
The woman considers it silly to deny herself intimacy after turning sixty: For women, it gets better because we understand our bodies more, We know what we need and we know what we like and we’re less afraid to ask for it.
2017 and 2018 became another creative success for her, with Jane partaking in Book Club and «Our Souls at Night. Her partners were Robert Redford (this is their fourth project together) and Diane Keaton.
Burt Lancaster Biography:
Burt Lancaster (1913-1994), one of the most popular film stars of all times, never wanted to be an actor.
Rugged, athletic, and handsome, Burt Lancaster enjoyed phenomenal success from his first film, The Killers, to his last, Field of Dreams — over a career spanning more than four decades. Boasting an impressively wide range, he delivered thoughtful, sensitive performances across a spectrum of genres: from film noir to Westerns to melodrama, he commanded the screen with a presence and power matched by only a handful of stars.
Lancaster was born November 2, 1913, in New York City. As a child, he exhibited considerable athletic and acrobatic prowess, and at the age of 17 joined a circus troupe, forming a duo with the diminutive performer Nick Cravat (later to frequently serve as his onscreen sidekick). He eventually joined the army, and, after acting and dancing in a number of armed forces revues, he decided to pursue a dramatic career. Upon hiring an agent, Harold Hecht, Lancaster made his Broadway debut in A Sound of Hunting, a role which led to a contract with Paramount. Because the release of his first picture, Desert Fury, was delayed, he initially came to the attention of audiences in 1946’s The Killers, a certified classic of film noir. It remained the genre of choice in several of his subsequent projects, including 1947’s Brute Force and I Walk Alone the following year.
After starring as Barbara Stanwyck’s cheating husband in Sorry, Wrong Number, Lancaster and his manager formed their own production company, Hecht-Lancaster, the first notable star-owned venture of its kind; more were to follow, and they contributed significantly to the ultimate downfall of the old studio system. Its formation was a result of Lancaster’s conscious effort to avoid “beefcake” roles, instead seeking projects which spotlighted his versatility as a performer. While the company’s first effort, the war melodrama Kiss the Blood Off My Hands, was not a success, they were nonetheless able to secure enough financial backing to break off completely from the mainstream Hollywood system. Still, Lancaster also continued to appear in studio productions. In 1949, he reunited with The Killers director Robert Siodmak at Universal for another excellent noir, Criss Cross, followed by Rope of Sand. He also signed a non-exclusive contract with Warner Bros., where he and Hecht produced 1950’s The Flame and the Arrow, a swashbuckler which was his first major box-office success.
After producing Ten Tall Men with Hecht, Lancaster starred in the MGM Western Vengeance Valley, followed by the biopic Jim Thorpe — All American. With Siodmak again directing, he next headlined the 1952 adventure spoof The Crimson Pirate, followed by Daniel Mann’s Come Back, Little Sheba opposite Oscar-winner Shirley Booth. A minor effort, South Sea Woman, followed in 1953 before Lancaster starred in the Fred Zinnemann classic From Here to Eternity, earning him a Best Actor Oscar nomination for his performance and, in his beachside rendezvous with co-star Deborah Kerr, creating one of the most indelible images in film history. Another swashbuckler, His Majesty O’Keefe, followed, and under director Robert Aldrich the actor headlined a pair of Westerns, Apache and Vera Cruz. Finally, in 1955, Lancaster realized a long-held dream and helmed his own film, The Kentuckian; reviews were negative, however, and he did not return to the director’s chair for another two decades.
Again working with Mann, Lancaster co-starred with another Oscar winner, Anna Magnani, in 1955’s The Rose Tattoo. Opposite Tony Curtis, he appeared in the 1956 hit Trapeze, and, with Katherine Hepburn, headlined The Rainmaker later that same year. Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, a blockbuster featuring Lancaster as Wyatt Earp, followed, as did the acclaimed The Sweet Smell of Success. With Clark Gable, Lancaster starred in 1958’s Run Silent, Run Deep, followed by Separate Tables. For 1960’s Elmer Gantry, he won an Academy Award for his superb portrayal of the title character, a disreputable evangelist, and a year later co-starred in Judgment at Nuremberg. Under John Frankenheimer, Lancaster next portrayed The Birdman of Alcatraz, earning Best Actor honors at the Venice Film Festival for his sympathetic turn as prisoner Robert Stroud, an expert in bird disease. For John Cassavetes, he starred in 1963’s A Child Is Waiting, but the picture was the victim of studio interference and poor distribution.
Around the same time, Italian filmmaker Luchino Visconti was trying to secure financing for his planned historical epic Il Gattopardo (aka The Leopard), and needed to cast an international superstar in the lead role; Lancaster actively campaigned for the part, and delivered one of the strongest performances of his career. Released in 1963, it was a massive success everywhere but in the U.S., where it was brutally edited prior to release. After two hit movies with Frankenheimer, the 1964 political thriller Seven Days in May and the 1965 war drama The Train, Lancaster starred in another Western, The Hallelujah Trail, followed by the 1966 smash The Professionals. A rare series of flops — The Swimmer, Castle Keep, and The Gypsy Moths — rounded out the decade, but by 1970 he was back at the top of the box office with Airport. Still, Lancaster’s star was clearly dimming, and he next appeared in a pair of low-budget Westerns, Lawman and Valdez Is Coming. After an underwhelming reunion with Aldrich, 1972’s Ulzana’s Raid, he attempted to take matters into his own hands, writing and directing 1974’s The Midnight Man in collaboration with Roland Kibbee, but it failed to attract much attention, either.
For Visconti, Lancaster next starred in 1975’s Gruppo di Famiglia in un Interno. Remaining in Europe, he also appeared in Bernardo Bertollucci’s epic 1900. Neither resuscitated his career, nor did Robert Altman’s much-panned Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull’s History Lesson. Lancaster languished in a number of television projects before appearing in 1978’s Go Tell the Spartans, which, despite critical acclaim, failed to catch on. In 1980, however, he delivered a stunning turn as an aging gangster in Louis Malle’s excellent Atlantic City, a performance which earned him Best Actor honors from the New York critics as well as another Oscar nomination. Also highly acclaimed was his supporting role in the 1983 Bill Forsyth gem Local Hero. Heart trouble sidelined him for all of 1984, but soon Lancaster was back at full steam, teaming one last time with Kirk Douglas for 1986’s Tough Guys. Several more TV projects followed before he returned to feature films with 1988’s little-seen Rocket Gibraltar and the 1989 blockbuster Field of Dreams. In 1991, Lancaster made his final appearance in the telefilm Separate But Equal. He died October 20, 1994.